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Cara Kerja Mesin Diesel 4 Langkah

Cara Kerja Mesin Diesel 4 Langkah

October 24, 2020 by BengkelSeal Team65
4tak.jpg

  Mesin Diesel 4 Tak

  1. Daur/prinsip kerja mesin diesel 4 langkah

Urutan kejadian yang berulang secara teratur dan dalam urutan yang sama disebut sebuah daur (Cycle). Beberapa kejadian berikut, membentuk sebuah daur kerja mesin diesel, yaitu :

  • Daur kerja mesin diesel yang pertama adalah Mengisi silinder dengan udara segar.
  • Daur kerja mesin diesel yang kedua adalah Penekanan isi udara yang menaikkan suhu sehingga kalau bahan bakar diinjeksikan, akan segera menyala dan terbakar secara efisien
  • Daurkerja mesin diesel yang ke3 yaitu Pembakaran bahan bakar dan pengembangan gas panas.
  • Mengosongkan hasil pembakaran dari silinder.

secara singkat prinsip kerja mesin diesel 4 langkah yaitu seperti penjelasan diatas Kalau keempat kejadian pada mesin diesel ini diselesaikan, maka daur diulangi. Kalau masing- masing dari keempat kejadian ini memerlukan langkah torak yang terpisah, maka daurnya disebut daur empat langkah maka disebut mesin diesel 4 langkah.

a.Titik Mati (dead centers) mesin diesel 4 langkah

Kedudukan torak mesin diesel ketika berada paling dekat dengan kepala silinder dan paling jauh dari kepala silinder disebut berturut-turut titik mati atas (top) dan titik mati bawah (bottom), yang ditandai dengan t.m.a dan t.m.b. alasan penandaan ini adalah bahwa pada kedudukan ini garis tengah pena engkol berada pada bidang yang sama dengan garis tengah pena torak, tap poros serta torak tidak dapat digerakan oleh tekanan gas. Gaya gerak harus datang dari putaran pena engkol yang bekerja melalui batang engkol.

b. Kejadian Utama/prinsip kerja mesin diesel 4 langkah

Empat kejadian utama mesin diesel ditunjukkan secara skematis dalam gambar 2-1. Selama kejadian pertama, atau langkah hisap mesin diesel(suction), torak bergerak turun, ditarik oleh batang engkol r, ayang diujung bawahnya digerakkan oleh engkol c. Torak, yang bergerak menjauhi kepala silinder, menimbulkan vakuum dalam silinder, dan udara luar ditarik atau dihisap ke dalam silinder melalui katup pemasukan I yang terbuka disekitar awal langkah isap dan tetap terbuka sampai torak mencapai t.m.b.

Kalau torak telah melalui t.m.b, maka kejadian kedua, atau langkah kompresi, dimulai, katup pemasukan menutup dan torak yang didorong keatas oleh engkol dan batang engkol, menekan udara didalam silinder dan menaikkan suhunya. Segera sebelum torak mencapai t.m.a, maka nbahan bakar cair dalam bentuk semprotan kabut halus dimasukkan sedikit demi sedikit kedalam udara panas didalam silinder. Bahan bakar menyala dan terbakar selama bagian pertama dari langkah kerja, sehingga menaikkan tekanan didalam silinder. Selama langkah yang ketiga ini yang disebut langkah kerja atau langkah daya, gas panas mendorong torak turun atau maju. Gas mengembang dari volume silinder yang membesar dan melalui batang engkol dan engkol meneruskan energi yang ditimbulkan kepada poros engkol yang berputar.

Berikut ini gambar prinsip kerja mesin diesel 4 langkah( 4 tak) :

Gambar di atas adalah kejadian dalam daur empat langkah.

Keterangan gambar prinsip kerja mesin diesel 4 langkah :

1. Langkah isap mesin diesel
2. Langkah kompresi mesin diesel
3. Langkah kerja mesin diesel
4. Langkah buang mesin diesel

Segera sebelum torak mencapai t.m.b, katup buang e, membuka (gb.2-1d) dan hasil pembakaran yang panas dan masih bertekanan tinggi mulai lari melalui lubang buang keluar. Selama kejadian keempat, atau langkah buang, torak bergerak keatas, di dorong oleh engkol dan batang engkol, mengusir hasil pembakaran yang tersisa.
Didekat t.m.a katup buang ditutup, katup pemasukan dibuka dan daur dimulai kembali. Seperti dapat dilihat, keempat langkah memerlukan dua putaran dari poros engkol. Jadi dalam mesin empat langkah , satu langkah daya diperoleh untuk tiap dua putaran poros engkol, atau banyaknya impuls daya tiap menit adalah setengah putaran/ menit ternilai (rating)

c. Pengaturan waktu kejadian mesin diesel 4 langkah

Kenyataanya titik pemisah antara keempat kejadian utama tidak bersekutu dengan awal dan akhir langkah yang bersangkutan. Perbedaanya lebih kecil dalam mesin kecepatan rendah dan membesar dengan meningkatnya kecepatan mesin. Katup pemasukan mulai membuka sebelum t.m.a, dengan 10 sampai 25 derajat perjalanan engkol. Pendahuluan ini memungkinkan katup cukup terbuka pada t.m.a, ketika torak mulai langkah isap. Katup pemasukan ditutup mulai 25 sampai 45 derajat setelah t.m.b. Penginjeksian bahan bakar dimulai dari 7 sampai 27 derajat sebelum t.m.a. Akhir penginjeksian bahan bakar tergantung pada beban mesin. Untuk melepaskan tekanan gas buang sebelum torak memulai langkah balik, katup buang mulai membuka 30 sampai 60 derajat sebelum t.m.b, dan menutup 10 sampai 20 derajat setelah t.m.a.

d. Kompresi mesin diesel

Terdapat dua manfaat dalam menekan isi udara selama langkah kedua atau langklah kompresi: Pertama menaikkan efisiensi panas atau efisiensi total dari mesin dengan menaikkan densiti pengisian sehingga diperoleh suhu yang lebih tinggi selama pembakaran; ini dilakukan pada semua motor bakar, baik dari jenis penyalaan cetus api (busi) maupun penyalaan kompresi. Yang kedua, untuk menaikkan suhu udara pengisian sedemikian rupa sehingga kalau kabut halus dari bahan bakar di injeksikan kedalamya, maka bahan bakar akan menyala dan mulai terbakar tanpa memerlukan sumber penyalaan dari luar misalnya busi yang digunakan dalam mesin bensin.

e. Perbandingan kompresi

Perbandingan kompresi dari motor bakar adalah perbandingan dari volume V1.inci kubik, dari gas dalam silinderdengan torak dengan t.m.b, terhadap volume V2 dari gas, dengan torak pada t.m.a, Perbandingan kompresi ditandai dengan R;

f. Pembakaran mesin diesel 4 langkah

Terdapat dua metoda yang berbeda dari pembakaran bahan bakar dalam silinder mesin :

• Pada volume konstan

Pembakaran pada volume konstan berarti bahwa selama pembakaran volumenya tidak berubah dan semua energi panas yang ditimbulkan oleh bahan bakar menjadi kenaikan suhu dan tekanan gas. Dalam sebuah mesin berati bahwa pembakaran diproses pada kecepatan sedemikian tinggi sehingga torak tidak mempunyai waktu untuk bergerak selama pembakaran. Pembakaran semacam ini diperoleh ketika torak pada t.m.a, keuntungan dari metode pembakaran bahan bakar ini adalah efisiensi panas yang tinggi. Kerugianya adalah kenaikan tekanan yang sangat mendadak dan mengakibatkan kebisingan pada mesin. Pembakaran semacam ini kira-kira didekati dalam mesin bensin penyalaan cetus api.

• Pada tekanan konstan

Pembakaran pada tekanan konstan, berarti bahwa selama pembakaran suhunya naik dengan kecepatan sedemikian sehingga kenaikan tekanan yang dihasilkan kira-kira cukup untuk melawan pengaruh pertambahan volume disebabkan gerakan torak, dan tekanan tidak berubah. Energi panas yang ditimbulkan oleh bahan bakar sebagian berubah menjadi kenaikan suhu gas dan sebagian menjadi kerja luar yang dilakukan. Dalam mesin dengan pembakaran tekanan konstan, bhan bakar dibakar sedikit demi sedikit sehingga tekanan yang diperoleh pada akhir langkah kompresi dipertahankan selama seluruh proses pembakaran. Pembakaran semacam ini digunakan dalam mesin disel injeksi udara kecepatan rendah yang asli. Keuntunganya adalah mesin berjalan dengan halus, sehingga menghasilkan momen puntir lebih merata karena tekanan pembakaran yang diperpanjang. Tetapi tidak sesuai untuk mesin minyak kecepatan tingggi.

Mesin disel kecepatan tinggi modern beroperasi pada daur yang merupakan kombinasi dari kedua metoda diatas, dan disebut juga daur dwi- pembakaran ( dual-combustion); satu bagian bahan bakar dibakar dengan cepat, hampir dengan volume konstan dekat t.m.a sisanya dibakar sewaktu torak mulai bergerak menjauhi t.m.a, Tetapi tekanan tingginya tidak konstan, melainkan biasanya pertama kali naik kemudian turun. Secara umum daur ini lebih menyerupai daur pembakaran volume konstan dari pada daur mesin disel asli. Keuntunganya adalah efisiensi tinggi dan penggunaan bahan bakar hemat. Kekurangannya adalah sulitnya mencegah operasi yang kasar dan bising dari mesin.

 

Semoga Bermanfaat.


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